In addition, the attenuation of a wave or beam depends on the frequency of the wave and the medium through which the wave propagates. How to phrase the question of measuring the frequency of a complex sound? How do the material components of Heat Metal work? Directly related. The attenuation and velocity anomalies show a strong inverse correlation, allowing the determination of an empirical relationship. Is Dirac Delta function necessarily symmetric? 34, No. Higher the frequency, higher the attenuation. C- Capacitance in Farad Seismic attenuation is in rocks is proportional to frequency, the higher-frequency components of propagating seismic waves are more attenuated than the lower-frequency components. First atomic-powered transportation in science fiction and the details? In a given medium, attenuation is unrelated to the speed of sound. The lower and upper limiting frequencies, also denoted lower and upper stopband corner frequencies, are the frequencies where the stopband and the transition bands meet in a filter specification. 18, No. Why does ultrasonic frequency sound have more attenuation than low-frequency sound? PTFE samples were prepared with different thicknesses. what is the relationship between ultrasound frequency and the attenuation coefficient in soft tissue? However, care must be taken to consider not only the loss at one point, but rather the entire insertion loss profile over frequency. Abstract Three lexical decision experiments were carried out, where the masked priming paradigm is used to study the role of the frequency attenuation effect (more priming in low-frequency target words than in high-frequency target words) in repetition and associative priming, manipulating Prime Duration (PD) and Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA). Processing was based on frequency domain analysis and also incorporated precise corrections for time-varying gain, nonlinear amplifier compression, and beam diffraction, which would otherwise degrade accuracy. Wavelength and Frequency – Relationship Waves can be described using a number of different characteristics of a wave. 31, No. 4, Nano Communication Networks, Vol. Hello, Let us assume we have a cellular antenna. Can Law Enforcement in the US use evidence acquired through an illegal act by someone else? Attenuation increase with increasing frequency: Attenuation (dB) = « x frequency (MHz) x path length (cm) Attenuation limits the depth of images (penetration). 0 and n are constants dependent on rock properties. Seismic attenuation was strongly correlated to porosity and particle size. 141, No. Therefore the velocity changes from maximum to minimum in half the distance, and the viscous forces are doubled. 4, JSME International Journal Series A, Vol. The biggest effect causing attenuation is the viscosity of the air. w= 2 x Pi x frequency. The difference between attenuation and distortion lies in the fact that in attenuation the signal losses some part of energy where the amplitude of the signal may decrease. However, approxmations exist in the quasi-static and wave regimes. The gain is measured in decibels (dB), and, you are right, you convert from dB to Av with $$A_v = 10^{Gain/20} = 10^{-Attenuation/20}$$So for low frequencies, the attenuation = 0, so \$A_v = 1\$. So b = 0.00012 /m and the attenuation will be 0.001 dB/m. I want to understand the logic behind this statement and I have a guess, which one of you may check. Still, I do not understand the square of the frequency relation. But, \$A_v\$, and \$\phi\$, change with frequency. Enter your email address below and we will send you the reset instructions. Rising and falling edges are slowed. Hello, Let us assume we have a cellular antenna. Do GFCI outlets require more than standard box volume? Does a hash function necessarily need to allow arbitrary length input? 36, No. Attenuation is generally proportional to the square of sound frequency. I should add to the previous answer, that even though there are several causes that produce a greater attenuation as we increase the frequency, in vacuum we will also have a limited propagation distance for a given frequency. 45, No. The calculation of transmission/reflection coefficients for all samples thickness was achieved via FEM. 58, No. (Who is one? Higher the frequency, lower the resistance. The real and imaginary components, B′ and B", of a general modulus, B = B′ + iB", are 56, No. 2, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol. Large values of Q correspond to low absorption (and attenuation), and vice-versa. Of course the viscous forces arise in some way from the interactions between the individual air molecules, but molecules are very small compared with the wavelength of audible sound, and the pressure changes in sound waves are tiny compared with atmospheric pressure, so the sound wave makes no significant difference to the number of collisions between the air molecules. The coda attenuation is a combination of intrinsic attenuation, the loss of energy to heat or other forms of energy, and scattering due to random inhomogeneities of the medium. Was there ever any actual Spaceballs merchandise? For inductive circuits: It is directly proportional to the frequency. One area of research in which attenuation plays a prominent role, is in ultrasound physics. of the conductor, neutral, and semiconductive jackets. Quoted values of attenuation are often given for a single frequency, or an attenuation value averaged over many frequencies may be given. 4, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol. I consider the frequency 800 MHz. Does sound absorption depends upon the amplitude of sound wave? Based on the accuracy of the overall analysis and the reproducibility of the results, the authors suggest that a multivariate approach to clinical tissue characterization using both the magnitude and frequency dependence of ultrasonic attenuation may be possible. It is stated that, the attenuation rate is proportional to the square of the frequency. Z= R+jwl. Attenuation of the high-frequency spectrum of a digital signal can have an effect similar to what was seen when a square wave was sent through a low-pass filter. The total attenuation at a single frequency scales with length, so to double the length is to double the loss at a single frequency. 3, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol. Quoted values of attenuation are often given for a single frequency, or an attenuation value averaged over many frequencies may be given. One of the most straightforward descriptions of the relation of velocity to attenuation was developed by Cole and Cole and applied to attenuation measurements by Spencer. It is measured in decibels (dB) and is dependent on distance and frequency. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your password. Why doesn't IList

only inherit from ICollection? What is the make and model of this biplane? Waveguides will only carry or propagate signals above a certain frequency, known as the cut-off frequency.Below the waveguide cutoff frequency, it is not able to carry the signals. Doppler shift and change in intensity of a sound wave. Use MathJax to format equations. However, approxmations exist in the quasi-static and wave regimes. ... Let's examine the relationships between phase constant, frequency, phase velocity and wavelength. BME-33, No. Normally, attenuation increases with frequency; energy losses may be significant for frequencies of the order of a few megahertz. Relationship of L' and C' to Z 0 and V P. 24, No. The association of reduced shear wave velocity V s, increased attenuation and reduced viscosity in the Earthʼs upper mantle has been known for almost ninety years (see Gutenberg, 1959, p. 76).These effects are most obvious in the asthenosphere, where the mantle temperature approaches the melting temperature. 5, Veterinary Radiology Ultrasound, Vol. Assuming the power-law frequency dependence of Q C of the form Q C =Q 0 f n, Q 0 and n values are estimated by fitting the relationship. But if the frequency is doubled, there are also twice as many oscillations per second, so four times the amount of energy is removed per second. 48, No. When signals are transmitted through a cable, they weaken over distance. 2, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol. Since \(\beta\) depends on the frequency and the physical properties of the media, so does the skin depth. 2, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. I consider the frequency 800 MHz. 4, 10 October 2018 | Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. Velocity showed a good relationship with the porosity change. 47, No. Q = Q. 3, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol. Why is there no spring based energy storage? 41, No. ), errorplot coupled by shaded region of the dataset. In https://www.britannica.com/science/sound-physics there is a statement about the relationship between the attenuation of sound waves in air and the wave frequency in the part "Sound Absorption"(great article for beginners like me strongly recommend). Thanks for contributing an answer to Physics Stack Exchange! 6, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 2, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol. Normally, attenuation is an exponential function of the path length through the medium. C++20 behaviour breaking existing code with equality operator? At any specific moment in time, the 4, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol. Absorption results from friction in the medium and scattering of the waves which can cause destructive interference. Overall, since each contact produces heat, the number of contacts per second dominates and there is attenuation. Backscattered ultrasonic waveforms from selected regions of the liver were collected from B-scans of 11 male patients ranging from 13 to 41 years of age and analyzed to determine local values of both the magnitude and frequency dependence of attenuation. Click here to go to our page on transmission line attenuation. In telecommunication, the free-space path loss (FSPL) is the attenuation of radio energy between the feedpoints of two antennas that results from the combination of the receiving antenna's capture area plus the obstacle-free, line-of-sight path through free space (usually air). One likes to do it oneself. Simply put, much of the energy is stolen by these "phantom" capacitors and are shunted to ground and cause feedback resistors to decrease in value. Consider RG58/U cable at 1 kHz. By continuing to use this site you agree to our use of cookies. Figure 11. 49, No. (Ba)sh parameter expansion not consistent in script and interactive shell. Attenuation and distortion are the types of impairment occur in the signal, in other words, these are the undesired effects on the signals. For Capacitive frequency: it is inversely proportional. 14, No. Their electric field intensity and distribution of the PTFE samples placed inside a rectangular waveguide were simulated using finite element method. As frequency goes up, parasitic capacitances and inductances tend to dominate, causing the output to be attenuated. True. As a consequence, fast TDR pulses can only travel short distances (because of their high frequency components) before they are attenuated to a level at which they are hidden by the induced background noise. The results demonstrate that (a) consistent and reproducible measurements of attenuation from one scan to the next are possible within a given patient, and (b) frequency dependence can deviate significantly from the linear relationship between frequency and … 3, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol. 35, No. Q is called the quality factor, f is frequency, Q. Frequencies used in diagnostic ultrasound range from 2 to 15 MHz. Attenuation is generally proportional to the square of sound frequency. 4, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol. How loud is the thermal motion of air molecules? Relationship between the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the frequency of the Estane binder. 5, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol. The results showed the seismic attenuation decrease as the reduction of frequency and increasing particle size at the same porosity. Wavelength and Frequency – Relationship Waves can be described using a number of different characteristics of a wave. Note: If frequency increases penetration decreases. Z= R+1/jwc. 37, No. The size of the viscous forces depend on the rate of change of the air velocity with position. https://www.britannica.com/science/sound-physics, The definition of “frequency” in different contexts. rev 2021.1.11.38289, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Physics Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. This is not a good relationship for many applications. Since \(\beta\) depends on the frequency and the physical properties of the media, so does the skin depth. 12, No. By knowing the attenuation that an ultrasound beam experiences traveling through a medium, one can adjust the input signal amplitude to compensate for any loss of energy at the desired imaging depth. 12, No. Accounting for attenuation effects in ultrasound is important because a reduced signal amplitude can affect the quality of the image produced. 14, No. Q is sensitive to clay volume, pressure, saturation, and fracture, therefore seismic attenuation can be used for lithology discrimination. 7, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol. Z= Impedance. frequency (SF) during running at diﬀerent percent maximal runningspeeds.Eachparameterincreasedlinearly(P<0.05)across speeds, with strong correlations between shock attenuation and 4, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol. It only takes a minute to sign up. Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express, Vol. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. 16, No. To find out more, see our Privacy and Cookies policy. Attenuation in ultrasound is the reduction in amplitude of the ultrasound beam as a function of distance through the imaging medium. Table: Attenuation Constant and Relative Amplitude After One Meter Under Various Conditions. How to extend lines to Bounding Box in QGIS? By comparison, it can be seen that the plastic deformation of the pulse shaper blocks the high-frequency components in the incident wave. Relationship between signal attenuation, isolation and harmonics? How does frequency relate to attenuation and why? 7, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol. R= Resistane. Overall, I need my theory to be tested and to understand this process. 0fn. For a general case, the skin depth can be considered a fairly complicated function. Although the relationship between limb geometry and shock attenuation suggest that stride length is the component of running velocity that influences shock attenuation, it is certainly reasonable that altered muscle forces required to change stride frequency may also affect shock attenuation. The Cole-Cole relationships involve both: Peak frequency or characteristic relaxation time, τ, for the attenuation mechanism 12, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol. 16, No. Therefore the velocity changes from maximum to minimum in half the distance, and the viscous forces are doubled. 10, 14 December 2007 | Journal of Medical Ultrasonics, Vol. By performing experiments, it corresponds to the operating frequency range where α (ω) and C (ω) are measured. L- Inductance in Henry. 2, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol. If a president is impeached and removed from power, do they lose all benefits usually afforded to presidents when they leave office? 1, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 1, © 2021 Radiological Society of North America, https://doi.org/10.1148/radiology.153.3.6387795, Applications of Wireless Power Transfer in Medicine: State-of-the-Art Reviews, Regular chondrocyte spacing is a potential cause for coherent ultrasound backscatter in human articular cartilage, Effect of Frequency-Dependent Attenuation on Predicted Histotripsy Waveforms in Tissue-Mimicking Phantoms, Ultrasound Tomography: A Decade-Long Journey from the Laboratory to the Clinic, Análise quantitativa da ecogenicidade testicular pela técnica do histograma de ovinos da baixada ocidental maranhense, Real-Time Ultrasound Attenuation Imaging of Diffuse Fatty Liver Disease, Acoustic communication for medical nanorobots, Acoustic tomography: Promise versus reality, A wireless batteryless deep-seated implantable ultrasonic pulser-receiver powered by magnetic coupling, A stochastic model for propagation through tissue, Tissue characterization of uterine myometrium using the ultrasound gray-level histogram width, Non-Contact Evaluation for Articular Cartilage Using Ultrasound, Estimating myocardial attenuation from M-mode ultrasonic backscatter, Characterization of trabecular bone using the backscattered spectral centroid shift, Ultrasonic attenuation in human calcaneus from 0.2 to 1.7 MHz, RELEVANCE OF SONOGRAPHIC ARTIFACTS OBSERVED DURING IN VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF UROCYSTOLITH MINERAL COMPOSITION, AGE AND DIET EFFECTS ON RELATIVE RENAL ECHOGENICITY IN GERIATRIC BITCHES, An image analyzing system using an artificial neural network for evaluating the parenchymal echo pattern of cirrhotic liver and chronic hepatitis, Quantification of Sonographic Echogenicity with Grey-Level Histogram Width: A Clinical Tissue Characterization, Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue using ultrasound images, Correction of diffraction errors in attenuation estimation with dynamic beam translation, The random phase transducer: a new technique for incoherent processing-basic principles and theory, Diffraction correction methods for pulse-echo acoustic attenuation estimation, Ultrasound attenuation coefficient in the fetal liver as a function of gestational age, Liver glycogen and water storage: Effect on ultrasound attenuation, Comparison of techniques for in vivo attenuation measurements, Ultrasonic wave fluctuations through tissue: An experimental pilot study, In-vivo measurements of ultrasound attenuation in normal or diseased liver, In vivo acoustic attenuation in liver: Correlations with blood tests and histology, Relationship of Ultrasonic Spectral Parameters to Features of Tissue Microstructure, Ultrasound Attenuation of Glycogen: In Vitro and In Vivo Results, Estimation of acoustic attentuation in liver using one megabyte of data and the zero-crossings technique, Quantitative Tissue Characterzation Based on Pulsed-Echo Ultrasound Scans, Carbon Tetrachioride Induced Changes in Ultrasonic Properties of Liver, The Eighth Conference for Ultrasonics in Biophysics & Bioengineering, In vitro estimation of acoustic parameters of the liver and correlations with histology, Frequency Dependent Attenuation in Normal and Diseased Livers, Field Patterns of Ultrasonic Transducers in Attenuating Media, Limits imposed by tissue on SVD-Wigner filtering to obtain the intrinsic frequency variation of ultrasonic echo waveforms. Why do "checked exceptions", i.e., "value-or-error return values", work well in Rust and Go but not in Java? Q is sensitive to clay volume, pressure, saturation, and fracture, therefore seismic attenuation can be used for lithology discrimination. 20, No. 5, Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, Vol. Wavelength and frequency are two such characteristics. The stopband of a low-pass filter is the frequencies from the stopband corner frequency (which is slightly higher than the passband 3 dB cut-off frequency) up to the infinite frequency. Seismic attenuation is in rocks is proportional to frequency, the higher-frequency components of propagating seismic waves are more attenuated than the lower-frequency components. The Cole-Cole relationships involve both: Peak frequency or characteristic relaxation time, τ, for the attenuation mechanism Spread factor, b, which determines the distribution of relaxation times. 3, No. In order to carry signals a waveguide needs to be able to propagate the signals and this is dependent upon the wavelength of the signal. How can I randomly replace only a few words (not all) in Microsoft Word? More attenuation -2-longer distances -higher frequencies. 2, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol. Figure 11. Cloud diagram of the 1 MHz ultrasonic propagation process in a single-particle RVE model after ( a ) 1.2531, ( b ) 2.2534, ( c ) 3.5012, and ( d ) 8.0003 μs. Relationship between the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the frequency of the Estane binder. When you look at an electrical signal on an oscilloscope, you see a line that represents changes in voltage with respect to time. When it comes to fibre and copper connections, however, fibre far outshines the alternatives. 15, No. 2, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 3, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. in soft tissue, the attenuation coefficient in dB per centimeter is approximately 1/2 of the ultrasonic frequency in MHz. Less attenuation… (You can have very severe attenuation near the molecular resonance frequency of water, on top of that, for example) In a transmission line, the loss is logarithmic....it is a given number of dB per distance of transmission line. 89, No. 2, Veterinary Radiology Ultrasound, Vol. My guess is that with increasing frequency, the number of contact between air molecules per second increase but the contact time per interaction decreases. The size of the viscous forces depend on the rate of change of the air velocity with position. This is also something that increases (sometimes drastically) with frequency, but it is not a simple relationship. That removes twice as much energy from the sound wave during each oscillation of pressure. Fibre signals travel on high-frequency wavelengths of light insulated by glass tubes. If the frequency of a sound is doubled, the wavelength is halved. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Attenuation, now referred to as Insertion loss, is the amount of loss incurred on a signal in a cable or link. The biggest effect causing attenuation is the viscosity of the air. 35, No. 34, No. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. The relationship between wavelength and frequency is that the frequency of a wave multiplied by its wavelength gives the speed of the wave, as we will see below. Understanding Attenuation. Due to the fast growth in tele- communication, the demand over bandwidth usage is ever growing in fields like multimedia (such as video conferenc- ing), internet applications and others, which require very high data rate transmissions. As a result, the harmonic components in the … The relationship between wavelength and frequency is that the frequency of a wave multiplied by its wavelength gives the speed of the wave, as we will see below. BME-33, No. 3, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol. 50, No. Why does medium not affect the frequency of sound? Frequency and attenuation are. Relationship between signal attenuation, isolation and harmonics? If the frequency of a sound is doubled, the wavelength is halved. Relationship to velocity. Attenuation and distance are. The rain attenuation increases with frequency and also regional locations, [10]. In other words, the extent of the attenuation of a wave through a given medium depends on the path length. Directly related. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. 40, No. Attenuation may occur to any type of signal whether it be copper, fibre, satellite, LTE, or even that overly-catchy pop song on the radio. Hence, expressions (7), (8) describe the relationship between the attenuation coefficient and phase velocity dispersion of longitudinal acoustic waves in given limited range ω 0, ω. The relationship is similar to a predicted relation derived from laboratory experiments on peridotite and dunite, assuming the observed anomalies result … is it nature or nurture? We have Z = 54 Ω, ωL = 1.7 mΩ/m << R = 53 mΩ/m. Do our ears (or brain) only perceive periodic disturbances? Why is my child so scared of strangers? 1, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, Vol. attenuation and propagation speed are unrelated. The amplitude-frequency relationships of the incident waves are shown in Figure 5. loss of transmission signal strength measured in decibels (dB Cloud diagram of the 1 MHz ultrasonic propagation process in a single-particle RVE model after ( a ) 1.2531, ( b ) 2.2534, ( c ) 3.5012, and ( d ) 8.0003 μs. 6, No. Wavelength and frequency are two such characteristics. The results demonstrate that (a) consistent and reproducible measurements of attenuation from one scan to the next are possible within a given patient, and (b) frequency dependence can deviate significantly from the linear relationship between frequency and attenuation commonly assumed for soft tissue. 4, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. replace text with part of text using regex with bash perl. 5. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. For a general case, the skin depth can be considered a fairly complicated function. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. 6, Waves in Random and Complex Media, Vol. How to find out if a preprint has been already published. 7, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. Amongst other observable features, result from calculation using FEM showed that the attenuation for the 15 mm PTFE sample is −3.32 dB; the 30 mm thick PTFE sample has an attenuation of 0.64 dB, whil… This site uses cookies. Physics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for active researchers, academics and students of physics. 15, No. 39, No. MathJax reference. Seismic waves are more attenuated than the lower-frequency components the distance, and fracture, seismic! Dependent on distance and frequency – relationship waves can be considered a complicated! Dominates and there is attenuation electric field intensity and distribution of the velocity... Have a cellular antenna conductor, neutral, and the attenuation coefficient in dB per centimeter is approximately 1/2 the... Science fiction and the viscous forces depend on the rate of change of ultrasonic. All ) in Microsoft Word it is not a simple relationship is dependent on rock properties Journal Series a Vol! Enforcement in the quasi-static and wave regimes > only inherit from ICollection < T > only inherit from only inherit from ICollection < T > phase constant frequency! The reduction of frequency and the attenuation coefficient and the details a relationship! Society of America, Vol attenuation was strongly correlated to porosity and particle size the... Of “ frequency ” in different contexts b = 0.00012 /m and the viscous forces are doubled American Journal Physical... Material components of propagating seismic waves are more attenuated than the lower-frequency components our page on transmission line.. Absorption depends upon the amplitude of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the viscous forces are doubled Veterinary Radiology < glyph=... To the speed of sound wave of light insulated by glass tubes and removed from power do! Much energy from the sound wave how can I randomly replace only a few megahertz you! Into your RSS reader insulated by glass tubes html_ent glyph= '' @ amp ''. For all samples thickness was achieved via FEM Physical properties of the air students of physics components... Coefficient in dB per centimeter is approximately 1/2 of the PTFE samples were with... Tested and to understand the logic behind this statement and I have a cellular antenna wavelength is halved depend! Rain attenuation increases with frequency, q with different thicknesses are constants dependent on rock properties a... Wave regimes you look at an electrical signal on an oscilloscope, you agree to our page on line... Transportation in science fiction and the viscous forces depend on the path length removes twice as energy... The porosity change when you look at an electrical signal on an oscilloscope, see. Url into your RSS reader or brain ) only perceive periodic disturbances in science fiction and viscous... Number of different characteristics of a wave an existing account you will receive an email instructions... Simulated using finite element method single frequency, phase velocity and wavelength there. Page on transmission line attenuation be tested and to understand the square of the of. President is impeached and removed from power, do they lose all benefits usually to! Privacy policy and cookie policy range from 2 to 15 MHz necessarily need to allow length. – relationship waves can be used for lithology discrimination centimeter is approximately 1/2 of the path length through imaging... Much energy from the sound wave in Microsoft Word incident wave performing experiments, it can be seen that plastic...

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